Background of the Study
Due to unavailability of safe water in many rural, urban and cities in Nigeria (like many other West African countries), there has been public and private initiatives aimed at providing reliable water supply through borehole drilling. It is common to see every household, compounds and premises drill their own borehole notwithstanding the distances between the compounds. In the short-term, the boreholes have far reaching positive impacts. According to the World Bank (2017) the positive impacts include increased access to water, creation of employment opportunities, improved health, reduction in waterborne diseases and improved sanitation of community members, reduced travel times to water points, increased participation of women in socio-economic development and improved household and community income generating activities.
However, the consequences in the long-term are not been taken into consideration at present. According to the World Bank (2017) some of the negative Impacts include loss of vegetation, alteration or destruction of wildlife habitat, occupational health and safety hazards, soil erosion, financial burden to community members, water vectors, and lowering of water table. Scientifically, excessive drilling increases the potential for chemical spills/oil/grease spillage, which can harm the soil and surrounding vegetation, excessive drilling may cause earthquakes due to the high pressure used to extract water from rock and the storage of excess wastewater on site.
Aim of the Study
The World Bank (2017) recommends that Environmental Impact Assessment study is necessary for borehole drilling project in order to incorporate environmental issues during construction and operation. This study will investigate the effect of bore hole drilling on environment relating to short and long-term environmental impact and what policies are necessary to regulate and control the activities.
The collaboration between government, the public, community leaders, private sectors is essential for urban planning and environmental development. Taking for granted, the role of the citizens is very important, at several steps of economic development. However, actions of the citizens may be reflected at different scale and many people feel that their contribution is marginal or may not understand the magnitude of the consequences of their actions when at large scale.
This is study is mostly Qualitative and Quantitative lab analysis. Also, it incorporates participatory approaches and stakeholder’s participation research. The forms of participation raise important questions: how do we define communities’ stakeholders? How to manage participatory inclusive processes in environmental policies? At what point in the decision-making process is it necessary to involve citizens and how? What instruments already in the legislation need to be stressed or corrected for the optimal implementation of boreholes drilling?
To cite this document: African Development Institute of Research Methodology (2020) Vol. 1, No.3, p.1
World Bank (2017). Review of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the proposed borehole. NDIRITI AGUTHI WATER PROJECT, NYERI COUNTY. SFG1171 V11. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/615131500317258417/pdf/SFG1171-V11-EA-P096367-PUBLIC-Disclosed-7-17-2017.pdf