Background of the Study

The number of slum dwellers in developing countries increased from 689 million in 1990 to 880 million in 2014 (World Economic Forum, 2016). The population who live in slums typically are poor, illiterate or semiliterate and engage in low-skilled (and often stigmatized) work (Shepherd, Parida & Wincent, 2020). In some developing country cities, slums are so pervasive that it is the rich who have to segregate themselves behind small-gated enclaves (UN, 2003). According to available reports, the population living in slums (% of urban population) in Nigeria is 50 per cent (World Bank, 2019). Kibera is Africa’s largest slum which is just 5km from Nairobi city center (Kenya) with about 700, 000 population. It is home to more than 50,000 children, most of whom go to informal schools set up by residents and churches (Weforum, 2016). In advanced nations interventions to improve health and environmental conditions include actions and policies that deal with factors such as safe drinking water supply, cleaner air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced noise, improved households and working environment. In many developing country’s urban slums these interventions are almost none, hence leading to severe diseases, epidemic, low life expectancy, high illiteracy, high mortality and death rates.

Aim of the Study

This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health and actions in alleviating poverty. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings and recommends policies that will improve the livelihood, health and environmental conditions of the people living in many African urban slums.

Research on impact of slum - adirm research center

Policy Implications

The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small-scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector.

Research Method

To do so, we conducted a qualitative and quantitative study of people living in slums in Nigeria, government agencies charged with social, health and environmental interventions. This method will enable the identification of the impact of expectations, roles, and the subjective value of their social, health and well-being in attempts to live and survive in slum conditions. About 80 interviews and 4000 Questionnaire completion is the target.

To cite this Article: African Development Institute of Research Methodology (2020) Vol. 1 No. 2, p. 1.


Shepherd, D. A., Parida, V., & Wincent, J. (2020). Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation: The Importance of Health and Children’s Education for Slum Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat, 2003). The challenge of slums global report on human settlements. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London UK.

World Bank (2019). Population living in slums (% of urban population) – Nigeria.

World Economic Forum (Weforum, 2016). These are the world’s five biggest slums. 19 October 2016.